Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика
  1. Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19-25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19-25.

    The origin of gold

    An international group of scientists, with the participation of the University of Granada,   has   shed   new  light  on  the  origin  of  gold,  one   of  the   most  intriguing 19 for the scientific community.


    20 work, which has been recently published in Nature Communications, has established that gold came to the Earth's surface from the deepest regions of the planet. Thus, the Earth's set of internal movements would have favoured the concentration of gold.


    The researchers 21 evidence of this process in the Argentinean Patagonia, which also represents the first finding of gold beneath the South American continent.


    African memories

    For someone who had never slept in a tent, let alone put one up or took one down, this 22 quite an experience.


    Our group of eight 23 into two teams of four. We loaded and unloaded the Land Rover and supply trailer as we moved to new campsites, put up the five tents, 24 turns cooking over the campfire and gathered firewood each evening.



    25 to Botswana involved a flight to London to catch a South African Airways flight to Johannesburg and a final connecting flight to Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, where most safaris to Botswana begin or end.


  2. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26-31, однокоренные слова, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26-31.

    Lawn care problems

    There is much 26 about the use of the word organic. When it comes to using the word in relation to lawn care, it becomes outright 27 .



    Many people depend heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers to keep lawns 28 . These chemicals, however, can cause damage to plants that are not being sprayed but are in the vicinity, can cause harm to passing or land-dwelling animals, and in extreme cases can cause soil and water pollution if they are overused or used 29 .



    It   has   been   said  that  where  these  chemicals  are  used  by  many  30 , they can enter into the food or water supply. Therefore, they can either 31 the risks of ill-health or become a direct danger to people's well-being. For these reasons, it's important that we keep our lawn-care methods as natural and organic as possible.


  3. Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32-38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32-38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

    Did Mars once have Martians?

    A new phase in the exploration of the Red Planet has begun now that SpaceX CEO Elon Musk 32 _______ an updated version of his Mars colonization plans during a widely anticipated talk at the 68th International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia, in 2017.

    Our   return   gives   Mars   scientists   a  new  shot  at  an  old  question,  one  that  has  33 _______ intrigued them: Is there life on Mars? Or, just as intriguing, was there ever life there? One of the previous successful missions to Mars, the Viking project in 1976, focused in vain on the 34 _______ for life. Its two landers touched down at distant but similar sites on the northern plains of Mars. They analyzed the composition of the Martian soil and atmosphere, 35 _______ meteorological observations for three Mars years, and most importantly analyzed the Martian soil for evidence of microbial life.

    The soil incubated in the Viking biology experiments showed activity which in some ways mimicked what scientists expected from life but which was unlike activity seen in any soils tested on Earth before the mission. The mass spectrometer did not, however, 36 _______ any organic molecules in the soil, even at a level of just a few parts per billion.

    37 _______ life on Earth literally teems with organics, it is hard to imagine that life could exist on Mars today with no trace of organics in the soil. This evidence against life is compounded by a general problem: the absence of liquid water.

    Temperatures on Mars are so cold and the atmospheric pressure so low that water cannot exist as a liquid on the Martian surface, and liquid water is an essential feature of  life  on  Earth.  Thus  the  lack  of  organics  and  the  absence  of  liquid  water  rule  38 _______ the possibility that life now exists on the surface of Mars.

    32     1) suggested 2) presented 3) demonstrated 4) registered

    33 1) regularly 2) ever 3) lastly 4) forever

    34 1) look 2) search 3) seek 4) hunt

    35 1) controlled 2) carried 3) conducted 4) organised

    36 1) recognise 2) observe 3) diagnose 4) detect

    37 1) Because 2) So 3) However 4) Besides

    38 1) into 2) away 3) out 4) against