RUSSIAN NATIONAL EXAM – READING

Раздел 2. Чтение
  1. Установите соответствие между текстами A-G и заголовками 1-8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. 

    1. Visible and invisible threats 5. Accumulations of waste​
    2. Types of pollution 6. Attacks from multiple directions​
    3. Sounds that kill​  7. Signs of an approaching disaster​
    4. Much-needed help​ 8. An untypical source of damage​

    • A.
        Marine scientists are concerned about excessive noise used by oil drills, submarines and other vessels on and inside the ocean. Many marine animals, especially whales, use hearing to find food, communicate, defend and survive in the ocean. Excessive noises are causing a lot of injuries and deaths to whales. For example, the effect of a navy submarine’s sonar can be felt 300 miles away from the source.
    • B.
        Things that we do on land can affect the quality of our water. Our waste often gets washed into our rivers and coasts without any treatment. This waste might be the big bits that you can see like plastic bags or cigarette butts. It’s also the tiny, microscopic toxins that we can’t see. They build up and pollute our water to such an extent that waterways become unlivable for native plants, fish and animals.
    • C.
        Coral reefs are being degraded by many factors. The list of problems can seem endless: overfishing, fishing using cyanide and dynamite, pollution from sewage and agriculture, massive outbreaks of predatory starfish and invasive species. Reefs and their wildlife across the world are also affected by destructive fishing and exploitation to supply the coral reef wildlife trade. It happens when fish and corals are all taken from reef habitats to serve as aquarium pets or decorative items.
    • D.
        Bonobos, a great ape that exists only in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is under constant threat due to poaching and the destruction of its natural habitat through logging. Bonobos live in the Congo Basin, the second largest rainforest on Earth, and of equal importance to the planet’s health. Fortunately, there are conservation organisations dedicated to saving the bonobo through education, funding and converting lands allocated to the logging industry back to protected status.
    • E.
        Light pollution is defined as the excessive introduction of artificial lighting to the outdoor environment. People who are unfamiliar with this problem often do not fully understand how light can become a pollutant. Around the world, street lights, stadium, park, and other lighting are illuminating the sky to such a magnitude that it creates a number of problems that are detrimental in terms of energy use, the environment and even to people.
    • F.
        The planet’s ecosystems work in a complex balance. Global warming and its associated temperature change affects this complex balance. At the moment we are witnessing many changes in animal and plant global distribution as well as their behaviour. These include things such as birds laying eggs earlier each year, plants blossoming earlier and animals ending hibernation sooner. At its worst, global warming may cause a huge number of land animals, birds and plants to become extinct.
    • G.
        Lightweight materials like plastic bags can easily be dispersed from rubbish bins and landfills into the surrounding environment by the wind and rain. Around 80% of plastic litter found in the ocean has travelled there from inland waterways. Oceanic currents can direct much of this material to litter-made islands in the ocean. Items as large as computer monitors and tyres, as well as plastic bottles and tin cans can be found there from across the world.
    Ответ ABCDEFG
    Заголовок


  2. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

    What Happens When We All Live to 100?

    When the 20th century began, life expectancy at birth in America was 47 years. Now newborns are expected to live 79 years. If about three months continue to be added with each passing year, by the middle of this century, American life expectancy at birth will be 88 years. By the end of the century, it will be 100 years.

    Viewed globally, the lengthening of life spans seems independent of any single, specific event. It didn't accelerate much A _____________. Nor did it retreat much during wars or disease outbreaks. A graph of global life expectancy over time looks like an escalator rising smoothly. The trend holds, in most years, in individual nations rich and poor B _____________.  If anti-aging drugs or genetic therapies are found, the climb could accelerate. Centenarians may become the norm, C _____________ in the local newspaper.  

    Since 1999, scientists have studied ways to make organisms live much longer, and with better health, than they naturally would. Researchers have already quintupled the life span of laboratory worms. Should research find a life-span breakthrough, the proportion of the U.S. population that is elderly fated to rise anyway, D _____________ and the retirement of the Baby Boomers.

    Longer life has obvious appeal, but it entails societal risks. Politics may come to be dominated   by  the  old,  who  might   vote  themselves   ever  more  generous  benefits
    E _____________. Besides, social security and private pensions could be burdened well beyond F _____________.

    • 1.
        what current data suggest
    • 2.
        for which the young must pay
    • 3.
        considering declining fertility rates
    • 4.
        as antibiotics and vaccines became common
    • 5.
        showing the whole world riding the escalator
    • 6.
        if large numbers of people enjoy longer lives
    • 7.
        rather than rarities who generate a headline
    Текст ABCDEFG
    Ответ


  3. In terms of the environmental impact, LED lights are regarded as ...

    • 1. just another light pollutant.
    • 2. a costly alternative to the traditional lighting.
    • 3. an innovation certain to be widely accepted.
    • 4. something that the authorities would not approve.
    Ответ:
  4. Which of the following statements is TRUE, according to the text?

    • 1. The initial elecrification of America was a rapid process.
    • 2. LEDs are relatively equally efficient in comparison with incandescent lights.
    • 3. LED lights are not particularly different in colour when used outside.
    • 4. There are very few concerns about the drawbacks of the LED revolution.
    Ответ:
  5. To make a breakthrough in the field of lighting technology, the Japanese had to...

    • 1. produce red and green LEDs first.
    • 2. develop modern conductivity methods.
    • 3. test the already existing technology on TV sets.
    • 4. guess the exact number of components for white LEDs.
    Ответ:
  6. The author refers to Hollywood films in order to ...

    • 1. give an example of a successful conversion to LEDs.
    • 2. point out the difference LED lights made for film directors.
    • 3. promote the new look of streetlights.
    • 4. show the scope of the LED revolution.
    Ответ:
  7. The practice of switching to LEDs is …

    • 1. not welcomed by city authorities.
    • 2. remarkable due to their cost efficiency.
    • 3. noticed only in large cities like Los Angeles.
    • 4. especially important as it helps make streets safer.
    Ответ:
  8. Researchers believe that the widespread conversion to LED lights …

    • 1. should not have been supported by the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    • 2. confirms the significance of this achievement in the field of physics.
    • 3. is going to be intensified even more as the 21st century progresses.
    • 4. has to be evaluated from a critical perspective as well.
    Ответ:
  9. The attitude of the author towards the LED revolution overall may be described as …

    • 1. indifferent.
    • 2. balanced.
    • 3. complementary.
    • 4. negative.
    Ответ: