Задание 3. Read the text and answer the questions.
In general, paints can be divided depending on their properties and application:
a) emulsion paints, also known as dispersion paints. They can be divided depending on the type of adhesive used:
- acrylic paints - their binder is water dispersion of acrylic resin. They are characterized by very good flexibility and adhesion to the substrate. Acrylic paints have a wide range of applications and can be used to cover, for example, wood, concrete, plastics, plasters and many other surfaces. They have high abrasion resistance and allow water vapor, however, the surfaces painted are susceptible to various types of damage.
- latex paints - the binder of this type of paint is rubber. Latex paints are extremely resistant to moisture and cleaning. Their advantage is a very easy application on various surfaces. The disadvantage is usually the high price. An example of the most modern latex paints are ceramic paints. They contain ceramic particles that form the so-called stain resistant coating. Thanks to this, the walls painted with them do not absorb dirt and dust.
- Vinyl paints - the binder of these paints is polyvinyl acetate or polyvinyl chloride. They are used mainly in utility rooms, and their greatest advantage is easy washability. Unfortunately, they also make it difficult for the walls to breathe due to the low vapor permeability.
b) lime paint - the binder of these paints is lime putty diluted with water. They are cheap, but not durable. In order to increase the durability, admixtures of other water-borne adhesives (e.g. glue) or the addition of polyvinyl acetate are used. Lime paints are used for painting fresh concrete substrates, lime plasters and walls previously painted with lime paints. Currently, the use of these paints is very rare. This is due to their very low durability, dustiness and tendency to create cracks.
c) distempers - these are durable and breathable paints with excellent solubility in water. Plant or animal glues are their binder. Distempers are not very resistant to dirt, they cannot be washed and they absorb moisture from the environment. They are mainly suitable for painting lime and cement-lime plasters. Distempers are practically no longer used because they have been replaced by more modern paints.
d) silicate paints - their binder is potassium water glass. These paints are durable, non-flammable, resistant to moisture and have high mechanical resistance. They can be applied on brick, concrete and wooden substrates. When drying, they cure under the influence of CO2 contained in the air.
e) silicone paints - create a durable and weather-resistant coating. They are produced based on a silicone resin. They are suitable for painting concrete, wooden, brick and plaster substrates. These paints have the ability to self-clean.